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What about eval?

Previously we've talked about how to control what code loads from the file system, but not what code loads from strings.

The rest of this discussion uses the term "eval" to refer to any of the eval operator, the eval function, new Function, vm.runIn*Context,*, WebAssembly.compile and other operators that convert strings or bytes into code.

Recall that it is difficult to prove that code does not eval:

var x = {},
    a = 'constructor',
    b = 'constructor',
    s = 'console.log(s)';

Some node projects deploy with a tweaked node runtime that turns off some eval operators, but there are widely used npm modules that use them carefully. For example:

  • Pug generates HTML from templates.
  • Mathjs evaluates closed-form mathematical expressions.

Both generate JavaScript code under the hood, which is dynamically parsed. Let's consider two use cases:

  • Pug's code generator is usually called with trusted inputs, e.g. .pug files authored by trusted developers.
  • Mathjs is often called with untrusted inputs. If a developer wanted to let a user generate an ad-hoc report without having to download data into a spreadsheet, they might use Mathjs to parse user-supplied arithmetic expressions (docs) instead of trying to check that an input is safe to eval via RegExps. It is not without risk (advisory) though.

These two uses of code generators fall at either end of a spectrum. The uses of Pug seem static, all the information is available before we deploy. Our Mathjs use case is necessarily dynamic since the input is not available until a user is in the loop.

Next we discuss ways to recognize and simplify the former, while double-checking the latter. On the client, we have no options between allowing implicit eval and banning all uses of eval. There are fewer compelling use cases on the client since it is harder to amortize code generation over multiple requests. On the server, use of eval in the presence of untrusted inputs still needs to be carefully vetted. We explore ways to programatically enforce vetting decisions short of a blanket ban, but turning off eval before accepting untrusted inputs is still the most reliable way to prevent attackers from using eval against you.

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